Clogged drains are part of our lives as homeowners. At one point, you’ll discover a blocked toilet. You’ll learn that water won’t drain in your kitchen sink. And in some cases, you’ll be surprised to find out that your washer or garbage disposal won’t function properly at all. Don’t worry. Unclogging drains isn’t that hard — if the clog is only minor. Check out this DIY guide that we’re sharing with you today and we hope that this helps you out! Remember, if you’re not confident about your plumbing skills, calling a professional is the best way to go.
I. Hot Water and Detergent
If your sink is clogged, chances are some organic waste, food particles or grease has already accumulated inside the drainpipe. The first thing that you can do is to boil some water in a pot. When it’s already boiled, pour a cup of grease-fighting detergent into the pot. Stir it well to distribute the detergent evenly. Afterward, carefully pour the water and detergent solution into the affected drain. Leave it for about 15 minutes and then turn the tap on. Check if the clog has been dislodged.
II. Baking Soda and Vinegar
If the hot water and detergent solution won’t work, then you must try one of the most popular natural ways to unclog a drain — baking soda and vinegar. All you have to do is pour a cup of baking soda into the blocked drain. After that, pour a cup of white vinegar, too. Then plug the drain immediately with an old cloth or a rag. Let the two ingredients form a chemical reaction. When you no longer hear any sound (like fizzing), remove the plug and pour a kettle of hot water into the drain to wash away any remaining ingredient inside the pipe. Test the sink by letting tap water flow into the drain. Still clogged? Try the next trick!
Actually, this is more like a tool than a trick. The plunger won’t be the iconic symbol of the plumbing industry for nothing. Just make sure that you’ll get the right plunger because there are several types available in the market. Fill your sink with water just enough to cover the rubber part of your cup plunger. Position the plunger right on top of the drain and plunge away with a consistent pace for about 15 repetitions. Afterward, pour water into the drain to test if the clog has been eradicated.
IV. Plumbing Snake
If the plunger method won’t work, then you must try the best drain clog remover. The plumbing snake is also referred to as the electric eel or the toilet jack. But for your sink, you should only get the regular hand auger that features a crank for reeling the wire into the drain. Simply insert the coil / wire into the pipe. Turn the crank clockwise until you feel a resistance. Keep on pushing the snake in while turning the crank to break through the solid material that has blocked up your pipe. When you no longer feel any resistance, carefully pull the snake out and dispose any waste properly. Once again, test the drain. If the snake won’t solve the problem, call your plumber.
As a homeowner, you will do everything to protect your precious property. Caring for your home should not stop with regular cleaning and updating of furniture, appliances, and other fixtures. Remember that your plumbing system is also as important as the other parts of your house. Drain cleaning in Boston should be part of your annual plumbing maintenance activity. After years of continuously using your kitchen sink, bathroom, and shower, it is but normal to expect drain clogging.
Types of Drain Cleaning
Using a plumber’s snake – A plumber’s snake is the simplest tool to use in cleaning a drain. This is a metal cable that a licensed Boston plumber pushes into the clogged drain. The snaking technique is usually done to unclog 2-inch and 4-inch drain lines.
Hydro-jetting – This is a unclogging technique that uses high-pressure water system (around 3,000 PSI) that can push debris and grease from the drain lines. Hydro-jetting is very effective in unclogging 2-inch drains. In fact, this technique is best for kitchen drain because it can remove the most stubborn grease and food wastes that have hardened over time.
Sewer camera inspection – For major drain cleaning issues, Boston plumbing experts recommend inspecting the sewer line with a camera. In doing so, the plumber will be able to know the exact location of the problem and what exactly is clogging the sewer line. The drain cleaning method that will be used after that will depend on the result of the sewer camera inspection.
Boston Plumbers Recommend Annual Drain Cleaning
Having your drains cleaned at least every year will ensure that your drainage system will be functioning properly the rest of the year. When you have your drains cleaned yearly, you will be able to enjoy these benefits:
Have cleaner pipes. Goodbye dirt, grease, hair strands, soap suds, and gunk!
Make your home bacteria-free. Drain cleaning also removes mold and mildew that becomes breeding grounds for bacteria.
Clean-smelling home. No clogs mean no nasty pipe odors.
Avoid future plumbing problems and, in turn, save thousands of bucks.
Only Hire Professionals To Clean Your Drain Line
Only trained professional plumbers know precisely how sewer and drain systems work. The tools that are exactly needed for the job are used. Sewer and drain lines contain toxic wastes that are hazardous to health. Without the proper tools and know-how, you might contract harmful diseases that may be life-threatening. Worse, you will be exposing your entire home and family to bacteria and harmful chemicals.
Do not ignore your clogged drains. If you observe that your kitchen sink’s drain or your bathroom drain is clogged, call your local Boston plumber right away. Plumbers 911 Boston can connect you with the best plumbers in your area. All you have to do is call (855) 550-9911.
Slow moving or clogged pipes happen to all of us at one time or another. Clogs can be frustrating and even stressful depending on where it is in the home or business. A plunger or store-bought snake may work to fix the issue or it can make matters worse. Store bought clog removers can harm your fixtures, pipes, skin, and clothing. Professional technicians get your drains running smoothly again in no time at all in a quick professional manner. This is just one of the many reasons why you need to go for professional drain cleaning in Boston.
Reasons to call for professional drain cleaning in Boston
There are many ways water and debris leave your home these are through various drains, pipes, or other systems. These can become clogged in a number of ways:
Tub and shower drain clogs. These present their own difficulties in cleaning and removing clogs. More often than not, the obstruction is usually hair and soap buildup in the trap and drainpipe. Fortunately, a special machine can fix this. It helps the drainage ducts to run like they were just installed.
Bathrooms sink clogs. Toothpaste, soap, and general grime build-up in the drain pipe usually cause this problem. Professional plumbers have many solutions to clean and clear these blockages quickly.
Kitchen sink blockages. These channels can stop over time as soaps, detergents, grease, and fats build-up in the pipe walls. Eventually, blockages happen. Professional plumbing technicians know how to remove blockages of this type and will do so quickly and efficiently.
Toilet drains. They can be overpowered with bathroom tissue and sometimes the occasional accidental “toy flush.” Most of the time, professional plumbers use a special machine that loads a spinning cable into the toilet drain. This cable has special blades on it that will slice through many types of obstructions and clean the drain to like new, and restoring its flushing capability.
Clogged downspout drains (gutter drains). As expected, these drains can become clogged over time with leaves and debris. Professional drain cleaning in Boston will help to restore the downspouts to their drainage glory around your home.
Blocked floor drains (basement, laundry rooms, patios, driveways, older bathrooms, and garages). Dirt and debris can clog these drains easily preventing them from draining well. Pipe traps hold water that prevents odors and sewer gas from entering the home. Regular testing ensures that pipes are working properly. Professional plumbers guarantee proper testing that prevents future blockages.
When to call Plumbers 911 Boston
Don’t wait for a clog or slow draining in your pipes to have your pipes cleaned. Most importantly, have annual drain maintenance. This prevents larger and costly problems from happening. Calling in licensed Boston plumbers from Plumbers 911 is a smart decision as the company can ensure that everything is flowing as it should be. Call Plumbers 911 today at (855) 550-9911 for a free quote and to schedule a visit.
Home plumbing, though not recommended to non-professionals, can be achieved if homeowners take extra precautions in performing proper maintenance.
This can be done if you have the proper equipment and skills needed to fix anything on your plumbing system. Simple tasks such as fixing the leaky faucet or replacement of your toilet gaskets can easily be done.
However, there are more complicated tasks that you should always leave to the experts like pipe replacement and repair. Below are some tips on how you can avoid these..
How to Avoid Costly Pipe Repairs
Costly plumbing repair service can also be prevented if these easy tasks are performed:
Check for leaks – Unmanageable flooding is sometimes caused by leaks because even the smallest leak in your pipes and faucets can cause this. The damage incurred through this require substantial plumbing repair and yes it is oftentimes costly. It is therefore important to check unheated basements, crawl spaces, garages and exterior walls, basically all areas that lack insulation.This is because little to no insulation often leaves pipes vulnerable to elements that make them crack and leak. If you cannot do the checking yourself, contact a residential plumber to help you check trouble areas and provide an overview on how to prepare as well as to maintain your plumbing system in the coming winter months.
Weatherproof possible trouble areas – It is always essential to look out for possible trouble areas, normally those with exposed plumbing. Windows, doorways, and vent fans should be checked to ensure that their seals remain tight.Otherwise one can fix up with caulking to prevent your home pipes from freezing. Ensure that cracked windows are repaired because as they can lead to freezing temperatures that would cost you expensive plumbing costs.
Insulate exposed pipes – Sealing off all airflow inside your home could lead to mold growth overtime. To avoid this, you can have your pipes properly insulated for them to stand up against cold winter air.This easy and inexpensive procedure is the best way to go. You can try installing foam tubing or wrap towels around your pipes to help the water heater retain heat. The pipes near electrical sources are vulnerable and should be insulated with electrical heating tape. Wrap it around the pipes to provide enough heat and keep the pipes from freezing.
Drain and insulate – Outdoor faucets and pipes have to be drained and insulated before the winter season to ensure that the water inside the pipes won’t freeze and expand. This is what’s causing the pipes to crack and burst. Secure the exterior pipes to avoid property damages and costly plumbing repairs.
Keep interior pipes warm – Do not forget that even indoor pipes are affected by the winter season. They can also freeze in cold weather. In order for them to not freeze, open your cabinet doors to expose them to heat.If you won’t be home for quite some time, set your thermostat to a minimum of 55 degrees Fahrenheit. You can also let your indoor faucet drip steadily to prevent pipes from bursting.
Have a licensed Chicago plumber maintain your pipes for you – Your plumbing system plays a major role in your home hence it needs the best care. Costly repairs can be avoided if the pipes have been properly installed and maintained from the very start.
Burst Pipes in Your Chicago Home?
There are two most common causes of broken pipes: water pressure and freezing.
Let’s talk about water pressure buildup and what you can do to prevent it.
Too much water pressure in your pipes can cause leaks and burst pipes. But how do you know if the water pressure is too high?
If you notice banging noises coming from your pipes, have a running toilet, or if you are experiencing frequent issues with your plumbing appliances, you probably have excessive water pressure in your plumbing system.
To prevent this from happening, have a water pressure regulator installed by a plumbing contractor in Illinois.
Understanding the causes of burst pipes can help you fix issues when they are still manageable and prevent them from occurring. However, once a water pipe in your home bursts, you don’t have much of a choice.
This can cause damage and inconvenience. It can be costly to repair when not addressed immediately, so the best thing you can do is to have it repaired by our expert professionals right away.
Why You Need To Have Burst Pipes Repaired As Soon As Possible
A cracked pipe that is about to burst is like a ticking time bomb. It can break anytime and cause costly damages, so immediate action is needed. It is always a good idea to fix a damaged pipe as soon as you find them.
A pipe leak, even a small one can cause damages to your home if left undetected. Here are some of the adverse effects of a pipe leak or a burst pipe:
Mold and mildew
Never let a broken pipe, or a leak get out of hand before calling an expert. While some minor issues are easy to fix, water leaks and burst pipes need immediate professional attention. Make sure to detect cracks and leaks and ensure that proper repairs are carried out.
Let the Experts at Plumbers 911 Chicago Fix Any Broken Pipes In Your Home
When you call us for help, here are the great things you can expect from us:
We offer speedy customer service
Technicians will arrive at your doorstep within the hour of your call, guaranteed.
Our emergency services are available any time of the day (and night)
We only have licensed, fully insured and bonded plumbing specialists
All our experts are well-trained and experienced in the industry
We offer reliable services that are not overpriced
One of the most important parts in our household is the plumbing system. Why? Simply because this controls the flow of water in our home. Whether we run water from the tap or flush it down the drain, every plumbing part is placed systematically by professional plumbers to work properly.
Water, as we all know is very important to every individual. In other words, we cannot function well without it. So, we have faucets and showers where we get water for washing, cleaning and drinking. We have toilets to do our daily rituals. These plumbing fixtures are beneficial and it helps us use water accessibly.
Why is it Important to Find Out and Fix the Plumbing Problems in Your Residence?
However, if we neglect to care for our plumbing system properly and overlook small issues, then we are in for a big surprise (not in a good way though!). That’s why plumbing maintenance is imperative.
It is a good way to know if everything is working perfectly. You can hire licensed plumbers to have a regular check-up or you can also DIY your plumbing issues if you think you are capable enough.
If you fail to maintain or fix any plumbing problems in your home, then chances are you’ll end up paying for more because the damage will worsen overtime. Say for example, a faulty tap may waste a lot of water because of a leak. Every drip adds up. Bear in mind that it only takes 4,000 drips to make one litre of water and that’s wasted water AND money.Plus, it will eventually worsen as time goes by.
Some plumbing issues may eventually lead to damaging other plumbing components. Then again, more money to spend. On top of that, it is also possible that other problems may pose a threat to your family’s health and we wouldn’t want that.
In This Article, We Will Be Covering:
8 Signs of Residential Plumbing Problems
The Importance of Plumbing Maintenance
How to DIY Small Plumbing Repairs
How to Maintain Your Plumbing System
How to Find The Right Plumbing Contractors
8 Dreadful Signs That Tell You Need to Hire a Kansas Residential Plumbing Expert
Plumbing issues are one of the things we tend to ignore until it’s too late. Most people know the basics in troubleshooting such as using a plunger for toilets and applying baking soda plus vinegar for clogged drains.
However, plumbing problems do not end there. There are things that we (regular people) cannot do-it-ourselves when it comes to more intricate issues.
That’s why these are best not to be ignored. Aside from that, you might go through the trouble of the mess it will bring you and you might also have to shell out a BIGGER amount of money for the repairs of the damage that you didn’t pay attention to.
Say for example, a simple blocked pipe line might start a leak overtime and may lead into bursting pipes in the long run since it was ignored. That would have been an inexpensive plumbing repair if the problem was addressed the earliest time compared to replacing your entire pipeline and also the damage it may cause.
Read on to find out more about these important signs that you should NOT ignore:
Gurgling Sound – If you hear some gurgling sounds whenever you use your toilet,washing machine or your dishwasher, this might be your first indication that you have a clogged drain.
When you hear some gurgling sounds even if you are not using your toilet, this is a sign that air is finding its way out through your system and you are most likely to have a backup or overflowing toilet.It’s quite the same thing when you are taking a shower, using the washing machine or using your dishwasher.If you hear some gurgling sounds when using them, you need to stop and observe first before having back up problems and call a trained technician.
Running Toilet – If you hear water running in your toilet chances are, you have a leak. Fortunately, there are ways to check or locate where the leak is coming from. First, check the plunger by flushing your toilet and make sure that the plunger is properly back in to its place after flushing your toilet.
If there is still running water, check the float arm inside the tank if it’s properly adjusted.When water is full it’s supposed to shut off your fill valve. Check if the switch automatically shuts off when the float arm is completely raised.After doing these things and you still hear running water, then you might as well check the flapper.Check if it still works or maybe it needs replacement already.
This is actually very easy to do. Get a dye or any food coloring and simply add a few drops into the toilet tank (but first make sure that the water in the toilet is clean!)You’ll see the results in just a few seconds.If your flapper is really the culprit, meaning it’s already damaged and it needs to be replaced, then you’ll see the food colouring coming out mixing with the clean water in your toilet.That means you flapper is worn out and you need to replace it ASAP because this will waste a lot of water and later on you will regret paying for a high water bill.
However, if you are unfamiliar with your toilet tank’s components, it’s best to call in a licensed tech to get the job done.
Leaking Pipes – If you hear hissing sounds even if nobody is using the toilet or kitchen or perhaps you see some discoloration on your walls, floors or ceilings, then you most probably have a leak coming from your pipes.
If you really want to be sure that you have a leak, that is easy to determine. Just turn off all faucets and showers in your home. Be sure thatnobody is using the bathroom or kitchen.Then check your water meter if it is still spinning.If so, then you definitely have a leak. Now, locating where the leak is coming from is another story.Leak detection is a plumber’s specialty.Licensed techs have state of the art tools and equipment to determine where a leak is coming from without causing any damage to your property.
Weak Water Pressure – In most cases, the weakening of water pressure from your kitchen and bathroom taps is because of gunk or scum build up overtime in your faucet’s aerator.
This is actually very easy to do. You just have to unscrew the aerator fromthe faucet and brush off the residue with soap and water. When it’s alreadyclean, just screw it back onto the faucet tightly.
However, if this does not change the water pressure coming from your faucet, then the problem may be coming from leaking pipes or clogged waterlines. We recommend hiring a certified plumber to address the issue.
Water Drains Slow – If in case you notice your kitchen or bathroom sinks drain a little too slow than usual, your drains may be clogged. Using mild drain solutions or vinegar with baking soda will probably do the trick.If you follow it up by shoving a plunger onto to the drains, it might suck up the clog or flush it down if it is easy to remove.
That said, if the blockage won’t budge, you might want to consider using asnake drain. However, there is always risk of damaging your drain pipes ifthey are corroded or brittle already. So, be extra careful when doing thisbecause you might end up spending more for just a simple job.
Frozen Pipes – This is something that you surely don’t want to ignore. If your pipes get frozen during the winter, you need to call a 24/7 emergency plumber immediately.Some signs of frozen pipes are: water not running through your pipes anymore, weird gurgling noises once you turn on your faucet or ice on your pipes.
Never try to thaw the pipes by yourself because this can lead to more damage. This can crack or even burst your pipes if you try to defrost them yourself.To prevent your pipes from freezing, let your taps drip cold water if possible overnight when the temperature drops below freezing, then leave your sink cabinets open to be exposed to warm air.
Sewage Odor – If you notice a pungent smell or a really disgusting sewer odor, chances are you have a damaged sewer line or a broken vent. If you have any broken sewer pipes or vents, this could actually be a threat not only to the environment but of course to your family’s health as well.
It is strongly recommended to contact a certified contractor to address this issue and prevent it from getting worse. Otherwise, you will surely face the consequences later on and it’s going to cause you more $$$. In case you smell something odd that is coming from your sewer lines, act fast and do not ignore.
Gas Leak – If in case you smell gas, whether you’re in the kitchen or using your dryer, then you probably have a gas leak.This is not an issue that you can take for granted since this could be fatal. Your family’s health and life is at risk.
This is a serious matter since you are talking about life and death. Immediately call a gas system professional to address the problem. Remember not to turn on any of your appliances because this could start a spark and will ignite the gas to explode.
Open your windows or doors to release the gas odor from your house while waiting for the professional gas techs to check and fix the problem.
You can check the pressure in your house. As much as possible, avoid adding too much stress in your plumbing system and ensure that your water pressure is always at a level that is safe.
Just check your water pressure by using a gauge. You need to see if the water pressure is too high. If so, you need to repair or probably replace the pressure regulator to ensure that the pressure is in a safe level.
What are Some Vital Guidelines on Plumbing Maintenance?
Proper maintenance is the key to having a good plumbing system in your home.
It is vital to have clean water that flows in and to be able to flush waste out of your home safely.
There are a lot of issues that may happen to your pipes, drains, toilets, water heaters and so much more. Leaks in your sink drains for instance, or leaks from your water heaters can be more than just a nuisance. More often than not, they cause mold to grow and structural damage if not fixed immediately.
However, most people tend to disregard small plumbing problems until they become big and serious.
By then, you are left with a possible electrical issues, wood or concrete damage and definitely a huge plumbing problem. On top of that, you still have a huge bill that you have to pay.These adversities can be avoided if you don’t neglect having proper plumbing maintenance. Remember that by maintaining your plumbing, you can easily identify minor problems and you can resolve it immediately.
Fix Broken Taps – Immediately fix leaking taps or showers either in your bathroom or kitchen. Although, it may seem insignificant at first, but it will eventually be costly if the damage worsens. Consider also the amount of water wasted if you neglect this for a long time.Bottomline — while it’s still small, fix it!
Declog Your Drains – Hair, soap residue, or any debris that goes down the sink and tub drains will eventually accumulate and will be the cause of blockage. It’s easy to clear out unwanted elements in your drain when it’s still early. You need to do this every few months or when you notice that water slowly goes down the drain.
Clear Your Faucet Aerators – Overtime, calcium builds up in your faucet aerator and this can definitely obstruct water flow. You will notice that your water pressure weakens in your faucet or shower — that means, there may already be some calcium build up. Cleaning your aerators regularly by removing them will ensure free flowing water.
Repair Any Running Toilets – Checking your toilet on a regular basis will help you discover small problems. Particularly, when you have a running toilet. Overtime, parts of your toilet may wear down and can cause problems.If you notice that your toilet is running even if it is not flushed, there are a few things to consider. Your flapper might need replacement, your fill valve might be defective and it isn’t stopping water from filling or your float arm might not be well adjusted.
Fix Your Sink Leaks – Kitchen sinks are often used in households which can be the cause of leaks coming from taps, sink drains or garbage disposal or any other sink accessories. You have to thoroughly examine your kitchen sink for any leaks or any signs of damage regularly to avoid huge problems in the future.
Examine Your Garbage Disposal – More often than not, garbage disposals can be the cause of leaks if it goes unnoticed. You need to check your unit for any signs of problems. Of course, you have to do it with caution or better yet check the recommendations of your manufacturer on how to maintain your unit to be safe.
Clean Your Sink Drain – Constantly keep your kitchen sink drain clean by applying natural drain cleaners. If you can use brushes that can reach deep in your drain, the better. It is imperative you keep your drains free from any residues or build-up to keep the water going down the drain fast.
Settings – You need to set your water heater in an optimal performance. Remember that your water heater works double during the months that are cold, so proper maintenance is the key to prolonging your water heater’s life. Set your water heater at 120 Fahrenheit if you are looking for a top quality performance.
Flush Out – Sediments in your water heater when accumulated can cause corrosion overtime. This reduces your water heater’s efficiency and it will definitely lessen its lifespan. Corrosion can also cause leaks in the long run since it can eat up steel and it will eventually find it’s way out.
Test Pressure – Testing the water heater’s pressure must be done with extreme caution. Just release the water heater’s valve by lifting its lever and let it flick back.You’ll notice a burst of hot water through the drain pipe and this indicates that it is working properly. Remember, If your water heater is already five years or older, we suggest that you contact a professional plumber to prevent accidents.
Septic Tank / Sewer:
Inspect Regularly – A sewer stoppage or main line blockage is absolutely a huge problem. So, it is better to avoid rather than to go through the problem especially if it worsens. You always have to maintain your septic tank system. You need to have this inspected regularly by a professional if not by you to see if it’s about to overflow already.
Septic Tank Pumping – Pumping your septic tank regularly is the most important part of maintaining. This will definitely clean your septic tank and get rid of the water waste and unwanted bacteria in your tank.This can also eliminate or minimize odor (if there is) that comes out through your toilet or drains. However, the schedule of septic tank pumping depends on the size of the septic tank and the frequency of usage.
Check Sewer Line – Maintaining your mainline regularly will prevent it from stoppages.You have to be sure that your sewer line is properly working and how frequent stoppages occur.Homes that have trees by their yards may have tree roots that can cause repeating sewer issues. It’s best to schedule a service to snake your sewer for preventative check-up. Watch out for the signs of sewer blockages before it worsens.
Contact Our Kansas Plumbing ProfessionalsNow!
For your plumbing concerns, contact our local technicians. No matter how small the issue is, you’ll never know if this requires immediate attention. Don’t wait until it’s too late.
You wouldn’t want to be spending a lot of money for huge damages when it could have been only a preventative check-up or a minor plumbing problem that could be fixed with a very reasonable price.
Why People in Kansas City Prefer Our Services for Their Residential Plumbing Issues
People want to get their money’s worth when shelling out, especially when they have something that they need to get fixed immediately. We always think of our clients’ satisfaction and we make sure that is accomplished every time we visit a home for service and repairs.
Why is that? Because we wouldn’t want to hire somebody that would just make matters worse if we were in our clients’ situation.
We at Plumbers 911 pride ourselves in taking everything seriously! Solving your plumbing problems is definitely our primary concern. Our team will surely solve all your plumbing problems whether it’s big or small. Bear in mind that we’ve got you covered!
Backed by our multiple years of experience and 10,000 hours of intensive plumbing training, we will deliver quality service for every task that we will handle. All our plumbing contractors are bonded, licensed and insured so you have nothing to worry about. With our top of the line plumbing tools and high-end equipment, our plumbers will get the job done fast and efficiently.
Stop worrying and leave it to us. We will surely flush your plumbing problems down the drain. So, the next time you need a plumbing help for your residential plumbing problem in Kansas City, you only need to call Plumbers 911, where emergency plumbing service is just one click away!
Watch the Video Below on Residential Plumbing
About Plumbers 911
Plumbers 911 is a referral service for local plumbing contractors and technicians. We are not a big nation-wide chain of poorly trained “guys with wrenches.” Instead, we have created a network of local plumbing professionals who own their own companies in your community, and know your unique plumbing needs.